Geothermal heat flux is the dominant source of uncertainty in dating based on the Engglacial temperature of ice rise formation (2023)

C Agosta, C Amory, C Kittel, A Orsi, V Favier, H Gallée, M R van den Broeke, JTM Lenaerts, JM van Wessem, WJ van de Berg. , and Fettweis, X.: Estimating the Antarctic surface mass balance using the regional climate model MAR (1979–2015) and identifying dominant processes, The Cryosphere, 13, 281–296,, 2019.

Albrecht, T., Winkelmann, R., und Levermann, A.: Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) Simulations of the Antarctic Ice Sheet Glacial Cycle – Part 1: Boundary Conditions and Climate Forcing, The Cryosphere, 14, 599–632,, 2020a.

Albrecht, T., Winkelmann, R., and Levermann, A.: Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) Simulations of the Antarctic Ice Sheet Glacial Cycle - Part 2: Parameter Set Analysis, The Cryosphere, 14 , 633–656,, 2020b.

Alley, R. B. und Koci, B. R.: Recent warming in central Greenland?, Ann.Glaciol., 14, 6–8, 1990.

An, M.J., Wiens, DA, Zhao, Y., Feng, M., Nyblade, A., Kanao, ML., Li, Y., Maggi, A. and Lévêque, J.: Temperature, boundary between lithosphere and asthenosphere and Heat flux under the Antarctic plate inferred from seismic velocities, J. Geophys. Res.-Sun. Ea., 120, 8720-8742, 2015.

Arthern, R. J., Hindmarsh, R., and Williams, R.: Flow speed within the Antarctic ice sheet and its controls inferred from satellite monitorings, J. Geophys. Res., 120, 1171–1188, 2015.

Begeman, C. B., Tulaczyk, S. M., and Fisher, A. T.: Spatially variable geothermal heat flux in western Antarctica: Evidence and implications, Geophys. Resolution Lett., 44, 9823–9832, 2017.

Bentley, M. J., Fogwill, C. J., Le Brocq, A. M., Hubbard, A. L., Sugden, D. E., Dunai, T. J., and Freeman, S. P.: Deglacial history of the West Antarctic ice sheet in the Weddell Sea Reservoir: Constraints on Past Ice Volume Change , Geology, 38, 411–414, 2010.

Bindschadler, R.A., Roberts, E.P., and Iken, A.: Age of Crary Ice Rise, Antarctica, determined from temperature-depth profiles, Ann. Glaciol., 14, 13-16, 1990.

Buizert, C., Fudge, T.J., Roberts, W.H., Steig, E.J., Sherriff-Tadano, S., Ritz, C., Lefebvre, E., Edwards, J., Kawamura, K., Oyabu, I., and Motoyama , H.: Antarctic surface temperature and elevation during the Last Glacial Maximum, Science, 372, 1097–1101, 2021.

Conway, H., Hall, B. L., Denton, G. H., Gades, A. M., and Waddington, E. D.: Past and Future Ground Line Removal of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, Science, 286, 280–283, 1999.

Cuffey, K. M., Clow, G. D., Alley, R. B., Stuiver, M., Waddington, E. D., und Saltus, R. W.: Large Arctic temperature change in the Wisconsin-Holocene glacial transition, Science, 270, 455–458, 1995.

(Video) What's The Best Temperature for Civilization?

Cuffey, K. M., Clow, G. D., Steig, E. J., Buizert, C., Fudge, T. J., Koutnik, M., Waddington, E. D., Alley, R. B. and Severinghaus, J. P.: Deglacial temperature history of West Antarctica, P. Natl. Academy of Science EE. USA, 113, 14249–14254, 2016.

Dahl-Jensen, D. and Johnsen, S.J.: Paleotemperatures Still Exist in the Greenland Ice Sheet, Nature, 320, 250–252, 1986.

Dahl-Jensen, D., Mosegaard, K., Gundestrup, N., Clow, G.D., Johnsen, S.J., Hansen, A.W., and Balling, N.: Temperatures were transmitted directly from Greenland foliage, Science, 282, 268–271, 1998

Dahl-Jensen, D., Morgan, V. I., and Elcheikh, A.: Inverse Monte Carlo Model of the Law Dome Temperature Profile (Antarctica), Ann.Glaciol., 29, 145–150, 1999.

Dahl-Jensen, D., Gundestrup, N., Gogineni, S. P. und Miller, H.: Basal Melting at NorthGRIP modelled from well, ice cores and radio echosonde Beobachtungen, Ann. Glaciol., 37, 207–212, 2003.

Determann, J. and Gerdes, R.: Melting and freezing beneath ice shelves: implications of a three-dimensional model of ocean circulation, Ann.Glaciol., 20, 413–419, 1994.

Engelhardt, H.: Thermal Regime and Dynamics of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, Ann. Glaciol., 39, 85-92, 2004a.

Engelhardt, H.: Ice temperature and high geothermal flow at Siple Dome, West Antarctica, from borehole logs, J. Glaciol., 50,251–256, 2004b.

Foreman-Mackey, D., Hogg, D.W., Lang, D., and Goodman, J.: Masters of Ceremonies: the MCMChammer, Publ. astron. society Pacifico, 125, 306-312,, 2013.

Fretwell , P. , Pritchard , HD , Vaughan , D. G. , Bamber , J. L. , Barrand , N. E. , Bell , R. , Bianchi , C. , Bingham , R. G. , Blankenship , D. D. , Casassa , G. , Catania , G. , Callens , D. , Conway , H. , Cook , A. J. , Corr , H. F. J. , Damascus , D. , Damm , V. , Ferraccioli , F. , Forsberg , R. , Fujita , S. , Gim , Y. , Gogineni , P. (2010). (2006). , Griggs , JA , Hindmarsh , RCA , Holmlund , P , Holt , JW , Jacobel , RW , Jenkins , A , Jokat , W , Jordan , T , King , EC , Kohler , J , Krabill , W. , Riger-Kusk , . M. , Langley , K. A. , Leitchenkov , G. , Leuschen , C. , Luyendyk , B. P. , Matsuoka , K. , Mouginot , J. , Nitsche , F. O. , Nogi , Y. , Nost , O. A. , . Popov , SV , Rignot , E , Rippin , DM , Rivera , A , Roberts , J , Ross , N , Siegert , MJ , Smith AM , Steinhage , D , Studinger , M , Sun , B . , Tinto , B. K. , Welch , B. C. , Wilson , D. , Young , D. A. , Xiangbin , C. , and Zirizzotti , A. : Bedmap2: Verbed Eisbett-, Oberflechen-, and Decendant Charts for the Antarctic , The Cryosphere , 1999. 7 , 1999. 7 . 375–393 ., 2013.

Fuchs, S., Förster, H.J., Norden, B., Balling, N., Miele, R., Heckenbach, E., and Förster, A.: The thermal diffusivity of sedimentary rocks: Empirical validation of a physical basisAFiRelationship, J. Geophys. Res.-Sun. each, 126,e2020JB020595,, 2021.

Fudge, T.J., Biyani, S.C., Clemens-Sewall, D., and Hawley, R.L.: Geothermal flow restriction in coastal domes of the Ross Ice Sheet, Antarctica, Geophys. Res. Lett., 46, 13090-13098, 2019.

(Video) Elon Musk Just Revealed NASA's TERRIFYING Discovery On Mars

Gillet-Chaulet, F., Hindmarsh, R.C.A., Corr, H.F., King, E.C., and Jenkins, A.: In situ quantification of ice rheology and direct measurement of the Raymond effect at the summit, Greenland, with phase-sensitive radar, Geophys . Res. Lett., 38, L24503,, 2011.

Goodman, J. and Weare, J.: Ensemble samplers with affine invariance, Comm. Application. Mathematics. COM. Sc., 5:65-80, 2010.

Holland, D. M. and Jenkins, A.: Modeling thermodynamic ice-ocean interactions at the base of an ice shelf, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 1787-1800, 1999.

James, D. W.: The thermal diffusivity of ice and water between40 years+60C, J. Mater. Sci., 3, 540–543, 1968.

Kingslake, J., Hindmarsh, R.C., Aðalgeirsdóttir, G., Conway, H., Corr, H.F., Gillet-Chaulet, F., Martin, C., King, E.C., Mulvaney, R., and Pritchard, H.D.: Complete - Vertical ice sheet velocities in deep glaciers measured with phase sensitive radar, J. Geophys. Res.-Earth, 119, 2604-2618, 2014.

Kingslake, J., Martin, C., Arthern, R. J., Corr, H. F. und King, E. C.: Ice-flow reorganization in West Antarctica 2.5 kyr ago dated using radar-derived Englacial flow velocities, Geophys. Auflösung Lett., 43, 9103–9112.

Kingslake, J., Scherer, R. P., Albrecht, T., Coenen, J., Powell, R. D., Reese, R., Stansell, N. D., Tulaczyk, S., Wearing, M. G. and Whitehouse, P. L. : Advance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet during of the Holocene, Nature, 558, 430–434,

Koci, B. und Bindschadler, R.: Hot Water Drilling on the Crary Ice Rise, Antarctica, Ann. Glaciol., 12, 214–214, 1989.

Ligtenberg, S. R. M., Van de Berg, W. J., Van den Broeke, M. R., Rae, J. G. L., and Van Meijgaard, E.: Future surface mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet and its impact on sea level change, simuliert by a regional atmosphärisches Klima Modell, Klima. Dynam., 41, 867–884, 2013.

Lliboutry, L.A.: A critical review of approximate analytical solutions for steady-state velocities and temperatures in cold ice sheets, Journal of Glacier Science and Glacial Geology, 15, 135–148, 1979.

MacAyeal, D. R. und Thomas, R. H.: Ice Shelf Grounding: Ice and Bedrock Temperature Changes, J. Glaciol., 25, 397–400, 1980.

MacGregor, J. A., Winebrenner, D. P., Conway, H., Matsuoka, K., Mayewski, P. A., and Clow, G. D.: Modeling English radar attenuation at Siple Dome, West Antarctica using ice chemistry and temperature data, J. Geophys. Earth Res., 112, F03008,, 2007.

(Video) Energy Paradox

Martin, C. and Gudmundsson, G.H.: Effects of nonlinear rheology, temperature and anisotropy on the age-depth relationship in ice divisions, The Cryosphere, 6, 1221–1229,, 2012.

Martin, P. J. y Sanderson, T. J. O.: Morphology and dynamics of icerises, J. Glaciol., 25, 33–46, 1980.

Martos, Y. M., Catalán, M., Jordan, TA, Golynsky, A., Golynsky, D., Eagles, G., and Vaughan, D. G.: Antarctic Heat Flow Distribution Revealed, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 11-417, 2017.

Matsuoka, K., Hindmarsh, R. C., Moholdt, G., Bentley, M. J., Pritchard, H. D., Brown, J., Conway, H., Drews, R., Durand, G., Goldberg, D. und Hattermann, T. .: Antarctic Ice Rise and Wrinkle: Its Properties and Bedeutung to Ice Sheet Dynamics and Evolution, Earth-Sci. Rev., 150, 724–745, 2015.

Miles, K. E., Hubbard, B., Quincey, D. J., Miles, E. S., Sherpa, T. C., Rowan, A. V., and Doyle, S. H.: Polythermal structure of a rubble-covered Himalayan glacier served by well thermometry, Sci. Rep., 8 , 1-9, 2018.

Millero, F. J.: Freezing Point of Sea Water, Eighth Report of the Joint Panel of Oceanographic Tables and Standards, Anhang, 6, 29–31, 1978.

Montelli, A.: sashamontelli/borehole_temperature_models: Englacial Borehole Temperature Modeling (englacial_temperatures), Zenodo [code and dataset],, 2023.

Mosegaard, K. und Tarantola, A.: Monte Carlo Sampling of Solutions to Inverse Problems, J. Geophys. Res.-So. Jeweils 100.12431–12447,

Neuhaus, S. U., Tulaczyk, S. M., Stansell, N. D., Coenen, J. J., Scherer, R. P., Mikucki, J. A., and Powell, R. D.: Did Holocene climate change drive the return and advance of the Antarctic ground line?Western?, The Cryosphere, 15, 4655–4673,, 2021.

Odaka, T. E., Banihirwe, A., Eynard-Bontemps, G., Ponte, A., Maze, G., Paul, K., Baker, J. und Abernathey, R.: The Pangeo Ecosystem: Interactive Computing Tools for the Geowissenschaften: Benchmarking auf HPC, in: Tools and Techniques for High Performance Computing, Springer, Cham, 190–204,, 2019.

Orsi, A.J., Cornuelle, B.D., and Severinghaus, J.P.: Little Ice Age cold interval in West Antarctica: Evidence for good temperature in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Sheath (WAIS), Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L09710,,2012.

Pollard, D., DeConto, R. M. und Nyblade, A. A.: Sensitivity of Cenozoic Antarctic Ice Sheet Variations to Geothermal Heat Flux, Global Planet. Änderung, 49, 63–74, 2005.

(Video) Geothermal Heat Flow Side Meeting

Roberts, J.L., Moy, A.D., van Ommen, T.D., Curran, M.A.J., Worby, A.P., Goodwin, I.D., and Inoue, M.: Well temperatures reveal a change in energy balance on Mill Island, East Antarctica, during the last few decades, Tue cryosphere, 7, 263–273,, 2013.

Robin, G.D.Q.: Ice movement and temperature distribution in glaciers and ice sheets, J. Glaciol., 2, 523–532, 1955.

Schroeder, D. M., Blankenship, D. D., Young, D. A., and Quartini, E.: Evidence for increased and spatially variable geothermal flow beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, P. Natl. Academy Sci. USA, 111, 9070-9072, 2014.

Seroussi, H., Ivins, E. R., Wiens, D. A., and Bondzio, J.: Influence of a West Antarctic mantle plume on basal ice sheet conditions, J. Geophys. Res. Sol.-Ea., 122, 7127–7155, 2017.

Spector, P., Stone, J., Pollard, D., Hillebrand, T., Lewis, C., and Gombiner, J.: West Antarctic Sites for Subglacial Drilling to Test Past Ice Sheet Collapse, The Cryosphere, 12 , 2741-2757,, 2018.

Talalay P, Li Y, Augustin L, Clow GD, Hong J, Lefebvre E, Markov A, Motoyama H, and Ritz C Measured geothermal heat flux profiles temperature in Deep Ice Wells in Antarctica, The Cryosphere, 14, 4021–4037,, 2020.

Van Ommen, T. D., Morgan, V. I., Jacka, T. H., Woon, S., and Elcheikh, A.: Near-surface temperatures in the Dome Summit South well (Law Dome, EastAntarctica), Ann. Glaciol., 29, 141–144, 1999.

Venturelli RA, Siegfried MR, Roush KA, Li W, Burnett J, Zook R, Fricker HA, Priscu JC, Leventer A and Rosenheim BE: Grounding line of the Mid- Holocene Retreat and Retreat at Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica, Geophys. Resolution Lett., 47, e2020GL088476,, 2020.

Waddington, E. D., Conway, H., Steig, E. J., Alley, R. B., Brook, E. J., Taylor, K. C. und White, J. W. C.: Dipstick Decoding: Thickness of Siple Dome, WestAntarctica, at Last Glacial Maximum, Geology, 33, 281 –284, 2005.

Wearing, M. G. und Kingslake, J.: Holocene Formation of the Henry Ice Rise, WestAntarctica, Inferred from Ice Penetrating Radar, J. Geophys.Res.-Earth, 124, 2224–2240, 2019.

White-Gaynor, A.L., Nyblade, AA, Aster, R.C., Wiens, DA, Bromirski, PD, Gerstoft, P., Stephen, RA, Hansen, S.E., Wilson, T., Dalziel, I.W., and Huerta, A.D.: Heterogeneous structure of the upper mantle below the inlet of the Ross Sea and Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica, revealed by P-wave tomography, planet Earth. South Carolina. Lett., 513, 40–50,, 2019.

Yang, B., Young, J., Brown, L., and Wells, M.: High-frequency observations of temperature and dissolved oxygen show convection under ice in a large lake, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 12-218,, 2017.

(Video) Antarctica’s Melting Ice Reveals its Frozen History... 2-hour Special!


1. NASA Telescope Discovered Planets Even Better for Life Than Earth
2. Ice sheet-ocean interactions
3. Plate tectonics of Zealandia – Professor Rupert Sutherland
(Victoria University of Wellington)
4. Fishermen Think They Found a Seal on a Floating Iceberg Until They Got a Closer Look
(The Finest)
5. How This Fusion Reactor Will Make Electricity by 2024
(Electric Future)
6. Weather Control and Geoengineering
(Isaac Arthur)


Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Lidia Grady

Last Updated: 14/08/2023

Views: 6213

Rating: 4.4 / 5 (45 voted)

Reviews: 92% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Lidia Grady

Birthday: 1992-01-22

Address: Suite 493 356 Dale Fall, New Wanda, RI 52485

Phone: +29914464387516

Job: Customer Engineer

Hobby: Cryptography, Writing, Dowsing, Stand-up comedy, Calligraphy, Web surfing, Ghost hunting

Introduction: My name is Lidia Grady, I am a thankful, fine, glamorous, lucky, lively, pleasant, shiny person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.